Your guide to the Enneking system which helps your surgeon decide about treatment for cancer that starts in your bone (primary bone cancer). A System for the Surgical Staging of. Musculoskeletal Sarcoma. WILLIAM. F. ENNEKING,. M.D.,* SUZANNE. S. SPANIER,. M.D.,** AND. MARK A. GOODMAN, . Based on a combination of histologic grade (G), anatomic site (T), and presence or absence of distant metastasis (M) Grade G0 = benign G1 = low grade.
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Read about other staging systems. Those that are not responsive to adjuvant therapy should be treated with palliative resection. Work-up is negative for metastasis, but biopsy reveals a high grade lesion.
What is the likely diagnosis? The most common place for bone cancer to spread to is the lungs. Historically, surgical resection has been the cornerstone for management of musculoskeletal sarcomas. Such tumors may be treated with wide excision, but the choice between amputation and limb salvage depends on the estimated amount of residual tumor left behind after a limb salvage procedure.
Clin Orthop Relat Res.
Enneking staging system
Well-demarcated borders are indicative of latent lesions whereas indistinct borders result from permeation into host bone and a more aggressive lesion [ 11 ]. A system for the surgical staging of musculoskeletal sarcoma. Most osteosarcomas are diagnosed as this stage. Author information Copyright and License information Disclaimer.
Each lesion ultimately is assessed on histologic features; however, some tumors are high grade by definition, such as a dedifferentiated chondrosarcoma [ 3 ]. Larger lesions may be more likely to metastasize and may benefit from adjuvant ennekiny [ 10 ]. Lesions originating in the skull also behave differently and thus cannot be staged or classified using this system.
Anatomical compartments have natural barriers, e.
Metastatic bone cancer has spread to other parts of the body farther from the original tumour. The second most common area for it to spread to is other bones. Am J Clin Oncol.
Local extent for any neoplasm refers to its containment in anatomic boundaries of a compartment. It is based on the grade of the tumour, whether or not the tumour has grown through the wall of the bone and whether or not it has spread. As compared to Enneking, this system does not correlate well with surgical procedure due to lack of consideration to anatomic planes and compartments.
Lesions originating in the skull also behave differently and thus cannot be staged or classified using this system. Call freephone or email us.
Prognosis of bone cancer depends on the following variables overall stage of disease incorporates all of the below presence of metastasis skip discontinous lesions within the same bone histologic grade tumor size The are two staging systems that are commonly used: Stages I and II are based on surgical grade of the tumor.
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Enneking surgical staging system | Radiology Reference Article |
For example, it may have spread to the lungs or other bones not directly connected to the bone where the tumour started. The Enneking surgical staging system is based on the natural evolution of mesenchymal tumors and thus xtaging not applicable to tumors originating in either the marrow or reticuloendothelial system.
The term tumor is synonymous with a neoplasm that has formed a lump. For benign tumors, local aggressiveness and incidence of recurrence increase with increase in surgical grade. But the cancer has not grown through the bone wall or spread to any other part of eneking body.
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The Enneking surgical staging system does not consider this important factor. Please vote below and help us build the most advanced adaptive learning platform in medicine.
The Enneking surgical staging system is based on the natural evolution of mesenchymal tumors and thus is not applicable to tumors originating in either the marrow or reticuloendothelial system.