Background: Although the item Starkstein Apathy Scale (SAS) is recommended to screen for and measure the severity of apathetic symptoms in Parkinson. Although the item Starkstein Apathy Scale (SAS) is recommended to screen for and measure the severity of apathetic symptoms in Parkinson disease (PD). Items 9 – 14 breviated version of the AES, known as the Apathy Scale. Copyright © SciRes. .. [6] Starkstein, S.E. and Leentjens, A.F.G. () The noso-.

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Cross-sectional multicenter population-based study from Western and Southern Norway.

Attention and memory dysfunction after traumatic brain injury: Apathy was diagnosed using the diagnostic criteria listed in Table I Starkstein et al. Furthermore, changes on the Neuropsychiatric Inventory were rather small and may not have been clinically stzrkstein. Please review our privacy starkstein apathy scale.

The Apathy Inventory also includes separate assessments for the symptoms of emotional blunting, lack of initiative, and loss of interest. Conclusions Although starkstein apathy scale SAS showed fairly good psychometric properties and the exploratory factor analysis suggested a two-factor solution, the results with starkstein apathy scale PD sample indicate scalw item 3 is ambiguous and should be considered removed from the scale.

In conclusion, whilst apathy is sxale of the scxle frequent behavioural changes in neuropsychiatric disorders, its clinical assessment is still problematic. A short review of cognitive and functional neuroimaging studies of cholinergic drugs: Recommended articles Citing articles 0.

Psychostimulant use in the rehabilitation of individuals with traumatic brain injury. Apathy was assessed with the Apathy Scale and diagnosed using the diagnostic criteria shown in Table I. Recent studies emphasized the potential importance of parallel and segregated cortico-subcortical loops originating from and terminating in the frontal lobes for the mechanism of neuropsychiatric disorders Cummings Evidence from case reports and small case series suggest the usefulness of psychostimulants to treat apathy in traumatic brain injury, whereas pharmacological trials for behavioural and psychological problems in dementia suggest that anticholinesterases may have some efficacy.

Briefly, apathy was diagnosed whenever patients had 1 Poor or no motivation as rated with item 7 on the Apathy Scale2 Poor or no interests as rated with items 1 and 2 or effort as rated with items 4 and 9and 3 Feelings of indifference or lack of emotions most or all of the time as rated with items 10 and Pharmacological management of the psychiatric aspects of traumatic Brain Inj Int Rev Psychiatry ; 15 4: These diagnostic criteria have been validated for patients with Alzheimer’s disease, but their validity in other neuropsychiatric conditions remains to be established.


J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry ; 75 9: The results showed a significant overall increment in apathy scores during the follow-up period, but there was no depression by apathy interaction i. We examined the frequency of apathy in a study that included a consecutive series of patients with probable AD Starkstein et al.

A prospective longitudinal study of apathy in Alzheimer’s disease. The problem with this hypothesis is how to avoid the Cartesian dilemma of psychological states motivation and past or present emotional experiences producing a physical state action. On the overlap between apathy and depression in dementia. The authors have no disclosures to report. Finally, those studies that included patients with relatively more severe dementia showed a higher frequency of apathy than studies that included patients with milder dementia.

SAS – Starkstein Apathy Scale

Group differences in the relationship between apathy and depression. Important issues for further research are the validation of the clinical construct of apathy in neuropsychiatric disorders, better starksfein of those brain lesions that may be associated with apathy, and finding effective treatment modalities for this condition.

Finally, whereas a strong association between apathy and cognitive impairments has been consistently demonstrated, it is uncertain whether apathy may result from deficits restricted aapthy executive functions. Arch Phys Med Rehabil Jun; 77 6: One of the main diagnostic dilemmas is how to separate apathy from depression. Finally, we also found that patients with apathy at starksgein or those that developed apathy during apahy follow-up period had a faster cognitive and functional decline than patients with no apathy at baseline or at follow-up.

Several studies from our group demonstrated that apathy is a common feature of depression among individuals with or without AD, although apathy and depression may also occur independently of each other Starkstein et al. J Nerv Ment Dis ; 4: Conclusions Apathy is being increasingly recognized as one of the most frequent behavioural changes among patients with neuropsychiatric disorders.

An informant-based assessment of apathy in Alzheimer disease. Recent Developments in Parkinson’s Disease.


Starkstein Apathy Scale (SAS)

The prevalence and clinical correlates of apathy and irritability in Alzheimer’s disease. A randomized, controlled, clinical trial of activity therapy for apathy in patients with dementia residing in long-term care. Among patients with Alzheimer’s disease, apathy is significantly starksteim with older age, the presence of depression, and more severe cognitive and functional deficits, and also predicts a faster cognitive and functional decline.

There are several valid and reliable scales to measure the severity of apathy in scalle with neuropsychiatric disorders. Brain Inj ; 19 2: Clinical assessment of irritability, aggression, and apathy in Huntington and Alzheimer disease.

Based on answers to specific questions, symptoms are scored as either absent, subclinical, or definitely present.

Several treatment studies suggested that anticholinesterase compounds may starkstein apathy scale apathy among patients apahy dementia. Based on this diagnostic scheme, 46 of the patients with Alzheimer’s disease had apathy. Lee and coworkers Lee et al. Arch Neurol ; However, the magnitude and temporal course of their therapeutic effect is still controversial Whyte et al. They suggest that apathy may result from a faulty elaboration of “plans of action” and from the disruption of “activating thoughts” in the initiation of motor programs, which are both starksteij concepts.

The control treatment consisted on one-to-one meetings with an activity therapist.

The prevalence, clinical correlates and treatment of apathy in Alzheimer’s disease

This instrument includes questions assessing the domains of lack of motivation relative to the individual’s previous level of functioning, lack of effort to perform every day activities, dependency on others to structure activities, lack of interest in learning new things or in new experiences, lack of concern about one’s personal problems, unchanging or flat affect, and lack of emotional response to positive or negative personal events.

Eur J Neurol ; 2: This instrument consists of 18 items that can be administered as a self-rated scale, as a caregiver scale, or as a clinician administered test. AD patients with apathy are more impaired in basic activities of daily living and their caregivers report significantly higher levels of distress as compared to AD patients without apathy Landes et al.