ANALISIS DE ORINA ATLAS COLOR [LAURINE GRAFF SISTER] on Amazon. com. *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers. Get this from a library! Graff: análisis de orina y de los líquidos corporales. [Lillian A Mundt; Laurine Graff; Kristy Shanahan]. Analisis de Orina Graff – Ebook download as PDF File .pdf) or read book online. Analisis de orina.

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The nitrite test is not particularly reliable and negative results in the presence of clinical symptoms are not uncommon, meaning that the test should not be taken as conclusive. This protein consists primarily of low-molecular-weight serum proteins that have been filtered by the glomerulus and proteins produced in the genitourinary tract.

Under normal conditions nearly all the glucose removed in the glomerulus is reabsorbed in the proximal convoluted tubule. In contrast, intact red blood cells are lysed when they come in contact with the pad, and the liberated hemoglobin produces an isolated reaction that results in a speckled pattern on the pad. The colours vary from dark blue with a reading of 1.

Hematuria produces cloudy red urine, and hemoglobinuria appears as a clear red specimen. Any amount of blood greater than five cells per microliter of urine is considered clinically significant, visual examination cannot be relied upon to detect the presence of blood.

Lab on a Chip. False-positive readings are obtained when the reaction does not take place under acidic conditions.

The detection limit of a test is that concentration, at which the test starts to turn from negative to positive.

Urine test strip

The detection of urinary bilirubin is an early indication of liver disease and its presence or absence can be used to determine the causes of clinical jaundice. Ascorbic acid vitamin C is known to interfere with the oxidation reaction of the blood and glucose pad on common urine test strips.

The inflammation of the renal tissues interstitial nephritis can produce leukocyturia, in particular toxic interstitial nephritis with predominant eosinophils. Uses authors parameter CS1 maint: The test can give false positives if strong oxidant or peroxide residues are present on the laboratory material used for the analysis. The test method consists of immersing the test strip completely in a well mixed sample of urine for a short period of time, then extracting it from the container and supporting the edge of the strip over the mouth of the container d remove excess urine.


In many liver diseases the patients often show signs of pathology only at a late stage. It is normal to find up to 3 occasionally 5 ahalisis per high power field 40X in a urine sample, with women having slightly higher results owing to vaginal contamination. An increase in fat metabolism can be the result of starvation or malabsorptionthe inability to metabolize carbohydrates as occurs, for example, in diabetes or due to losses from frequent vomiting.

Specific carbohydrate metabolism disorders able to be identified include Diabetes MellitusGlucosuria and Ketonuria.

The importance of screening for diabetes and kidney disease amongst high-risk populations is becoming very high. Elevated concentrations of ketones are not generally found in urine, as all these substances are completely metabolized, producing energy, carbon dioxide and water.

It uses procedure and summary boxes for quick reference. The 5th Edition has been completely updated to include all of the new information and new testing procedures that are important in this rapidly changing field.

The strip is then left to stand for the time necessary for the reactions to occur usually 1 to 2 minutesand finally the colours that appear are compared against the chromatic scale provided by the ggraff. Automatic analysis of urine test strips using automated urine test strip analysers is a well-established practice in modern-day urinalysis.

The indoxyl that is liberated combines with a diazonium salt in order to produce a violet coloured azole dye. The haemoglobin that is released after the mononuclear phagocyte system located in the liver and spleen withdraws old red blood cells from circulation is degraded into its components; ironprotoporphyrin and protein.

Glucose concentrations vary in an individual, and a healthy person can present with transitory glucosuria after a meal high in sugars; therefore the most representative results come from samples obtained at least two hours after food is eaten.

Those medicines that contain sulfhydryl groups, such as mercaptoethane sulphonate Na Mesna and captopril and L-DOPA can give atypical colouring. In order to differentiate pH in this wide range it is common to use anwlisis double indicator system comprising methyl red and bromothymol blue. Diets rich in animal proteins tend to produce acidic urine, while diets mainly composed of vegetables tend to produce alkali urine.

Specific liver diseases and haemolytic disorders able to be identified include liver diseaseaccompanied by jaundicecirrhosisurobilinogenuria and bilirubinuria.

It offers comprehensive discussions of the physical, chemical, and microscopic analyses of urine. Both contain an acid buffer to maintain the pH at a constant level. The hemoglobin precipitates out with the ammonia sulphate but not the myoglobin.


A number grafv substances interfere with the Ehrlich reaction on the Multistix strip: A standard urine test strip may comprise up to 10 different chemical pads or reagents which react change color when immersed in, and then removed from, a urine sample. The pad also includes bromothymol blue which measures this change orija pH. Some urine test strips are protected against the interference with iodate, which eliminates ascorbic acid by oxidation. There are strips which serve different purposes, such as qualitative strips that only determine if the sample is positive or negative, or there are semi-quantitative ones that in addition to providing a positive or negative reaction also provide an estimation of a quantitative result, in the latter the colour reactions are approximately proportional to the concentration of the substance being tested for in the sample.

The detection of glucose by analizis strips is based on the enzymatic reaction of glucose oxidase. Regulating diet mainly controls urinary pH, although using medication can also control it. Analysis of the supernatant for blood with a test strip will give a positive if myoglobin is present and a negative if hemoglobin is present.


Análisis de orina: atlas color – Laurine Graff – Google Books

The formaldehyde used as a preservative produces false negatives in both reactions. Dde March 13, On the one hand it provides information regarding the balance between acid and alkali in analisiss patient and allows identification of the substances that are present in the urine in crystalline form. Non-pathological hematuria can be observed after strenuous exercise and during menstruation.

Analisiss pH of urine normally vary between 4. Infections caused by TrichomonasChlamydia and yeasts produce leukocyturia without bacteriuria. Two colour charts are provided that correspond to the reactions that occur with hemoglobinuria, myoglobinuria and hematuria RBCs. Blood present in large quantities can be detected visually.

Uromodulin is routinely produced in the distal convoluted tube, and forms the matrix of casts. It features more than full-color slides of urine, cerebrospinal, seminal, synovial, and serous fluids, positioned close to the related text. Depending on the manufacturer, the protein area of the strip contains different chemicals.