In Chapter 1, you have read about electromagnet-based DC motors. You have seen various connection methods there such as shunt, series, and separate field. Sep 22, AC commutator motors, like comparable DC motors, have higher starting torque and higher speed than AC induction motors. The series motor operates well. If a d.c. armature is placed in a rotating magnetic field, the emf induced in the individual armature conductors is proportional to the relative speed of field and.

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In a motor, the armature current causes the fixed magnetic field to exert a rotational force, or a torqueon the winding to make it turn. This page was last edited on 30 Julyat Then, is a shunt motor usable with AC? Two or more fixed brushes connect to the external circuit, either a source of current for a motor or a load for a generator.

The field induces a current flow into the shorted armature whose magnetic field opposes that of the field coils. In Chapter 1, you have read about electromagnet-based DC motors. When an induction motor drives a hard starting load like a compressor, the high starting torque of the repulsion motor may be put to use.

Thus, although the current passing through the brush was more or less constant, the instantaneous current passing to the two a.c.coommutator segments was proportional to the relative area in contact with the brush. Improving Gain Sensitivity and Bandwidth Having introduced the general negative feedback structure, we will now demonstrate that negative feedback has a beneficial omtors on two Therefore, commutated machines are declining in use, being replaced by alternating current AC machines, and in recent years by brushless DC motors which use semiconductor switches.

With the wide availability of alternating current, DC motors have been replaced by more efficient AC synchronous or induction motors.

Since a commutator motor can operate at much higher speed than an induction motor, it can output more power than a similar size induction motor.

The commutator on small motors say, less than a kilowatt rating is mmotors designed to be repaired through the life of the device. On large industrial machines say, from several kilowatts to thousands of kilowatts in rating it is economical to replace individual damaged segments, and so the end-wedge can be unscrewed and individual segments removed and replaced. The effect can be considered to be analogous to timing advance in an internal a.c.commuyator engine. In the coils of the rotor, even after the brush has been reached, currents tend a.c.commutwtor continue to flow for a brief moment, resulting in a wasted energy as heat due to the brush spanning across several commutator segments and the current short-circuiting across the segments.


A series commutator motor is operable on AC.

Structure And Characteristics Of AC Commutator Motors | Nidec Corporation

During operation, it was necessary to adjust the position of the motorz ring to adjust the commutation to minimise the sparking at the brushes. This is known as a universal motor. In small appliance and tool motors the segments are typically crimped permanently in place and cannot be removed.

AC commutator motors The single phase series motor is an attempt to build a motor like a DC commutator motor. If the polarity of the electromagnet remains the same as shown in Fig. In the latter case, all commutator segments are connected together as well, before the motor attains running speed. These field effects are reversed when the direction of spin is reversed. The softness of carbon brushes permits direct radial end-contact with the commutator without damage to the segments, permitting easy reversal of rotor direction, without the need to reorient the brush holders for operation in the opposite direction.

Thus, the magnetic flux density becomes low when the current is conducted to the armature, and when it becomes high, the current to the armature is stopped. Modern devices using carbon brushes usually have a maintenance-free design that requires no adjustment throughout the life of the device, using a fixed-position brush holder slot and a combined brush-spring-cable assembly that fits into the slot.

Commutator (electric)

All but very small AC commutator motors employ compensating windings. Typically the brush is wide enough to span 2. In the case of a reaction-type a.c.commuutator brush holder, carbon brushes may be reversely inclined with the commutator so that the commutator tends to push against the carbon for firm contact.

To conduct sufficient current to or from the commutator, the brush contact area is not a thin line but instead a rectangular patch across the segments.

Alternating-current commutator motor

Commutation and the Commutator, p. However commutator motors are not as maintenance free as induction motors, due to brush and commutator wear. This motord holder distributes current evenly across all the brushes, and permits a careful operator to remove a bad brush and replace it with a new one, even as the machine continues to spin fully powered and under load. There are two well-known historical types: Refillable dovetailed commutators are the most common construction of larger industrial type commutators, but refillable commutators may also be constructed using external bands made of fiberglass glass banded construction or forged steel rings external steel moyors ring type construction and internal steel shrink ring type construction.

Alternator Electric generator Inchworm motor. The single-phase AC version suffers a double line frequency torque jotors, not present in poly-phase motor. AC commutator motors, like comparable DC motors, have higher starting torque and higher speed than AC induction motors.


The series motor operates well above the synchronous a.c.commuttor of a conventional AC motor. Mica was used on early machines and is still used on large machines. This results in considerable arcing and sparking at the brushes as the armature begins to turn. Generally a motoes that has been designed to run at a certain fixed speed will have its brushes permanently fixed to align the field for highest efficiency at that speed.

Friction between the segments and the brushes eventually causes wear to both surfaces. Universal motor It is possible to design small under watts universal motors which run from either DC or AC. The situation was so bad that motors could not be designed ahead of the actual construction.

Self-induction — The magnetic fields in each coil of wire join and compound together to create a magnetic field that resists changes in the current, which can be likened to the current having inertia. Eventually the brush wears small and thin enough that steady contact is no longer possible or it is no longer securely held in the brush holder, and so the brush must be replaced.

AC Commutator Motors | AC Motors | Electronics Textbook

The induction motor rotor windings are brought out to commutator segments for starting by a pair of shorted brushes. The result of this is that as the commutator segment passes from under the brush, the current passing to it ramps down more smoothly than had been the case with pure copper brushes where the contact broke suddenly. If a DC series motor equipped with a laminated field is connected to AC, the lagging reactance of the field coil will considerably reduce the field current.

You May Also Like: There is less sparking with carbon as compared to copper, and as the carbon wears away, the higher resistance of carbon results in fewer problems from the dust collecting on the commutator segments. A commutator consists of a set of contact bars fixed to the rotating shaft of a machine, and connected to the armature windings.

Among these motors, what do you think will happen if AC power is applied to a series motor? Compared to this, such a phenomenon does not occur on the series coil since its field coil and armature coil are in series and the phase of current of the both is identical.